Compression Machine Capacity Calculation

Tablet presses are machines designed to compress pharmaceutical powders and granules into tablets. They must be highly precise in order to create uniform tablets that each contain the same amount of active pharmaceutical ingredients and excipients. This page will cover some key essentials that you need to know about these vital machines.

The pharmaceutical industry manufactures vast numbers of tablets every day, and the safety of patients can depend on the uniformity of each dosage unit. As such, the precision capabilities offered by modern tablet presses are invaluable for pharmaceutical companies.

While most tablet presses function similarly in principle, the method of compression varies slightly depending on the type of press. There are two different classifications of tablet press machines: single punch presses and multi-station/rotary presses.

Single punch tablet presses, also known as eccentric or single station presses, are the simplest form of tablet press. They utilize a single station of tooling that is composed of a pair of upper and lower punches and a die. For this type of press, the lower punch remains stationary while the upper punch exerts the entirety of the compression force to create the tablets. Due to their hammer-like motions, single punch tablet presses are categorized as a stamping process.

Unlike single-punch tablet presses, rotary tablet presses contain multiple tooling stations. As the turret in which these stations are installed rotates, the punches move between a set of upper and lower compression rolls that exert enough compression to form uniform tablets, in large quantities. In this type of press, both the upper and lower punches move and the tablet compression occurs between the two. Rotary presses are thus categorized as a type of accordion compression.

The goal of this type of press is to increase the output of tablets. Depending on the different punch designs, rotary presses can create tablets of different shapes and dimensions.

The two categories of tablet presses are each composed of a number of different parts. Single punch presses contain the following:

Hopper. The area that holds the powder mixture prior to compression.

Die Cavity. The area where compression occurs. Its shape determines the tablet’s size and diameter.

Punches. Components which compress the powder mixture.

Dosing plow. Pushes a small, precise amount of product into the die cavity.

Ejection Cam. Pushes the bottom punch upwards, ejecting the finished tablet from the die cavity.

Multi-station/rotary tablet presses have a significantly greater number of parts. In addition to the hopper, die cavity, upper and lower cam tracks, and punches, these presses contain:

Feeder System.

A vital part of the compression process, the (normally) induced feeder system distributes product from the hopper into the die cavities, over-filling them prior to more precise control by the dosing station. Feeders are typically comprised of the exterior housing, any number of rotating, interior paddle wheels (that actually distribute the product), and a base plate.

Fill cams and Dosing station.

Work in concert with one another to control the precise amount of product fed into the die cavities prior to compression, thus determining tablet weight.

Pre-Compression Rollers.

Provide initial compression in order to remove any air trapped within the die cavity.

Main Compression Rollers.

Exert the final compression force in order to form the finished tablets. Rollers must remain steady throughout the process in order to ensure tablet uniformity and repeatable quality.

Ejection Cam.

Pushes the bottom punches upwards, ejecting the finished tablets from the die cavity.

Take-Off Blade.

Guides tablets into the discharge chute after they have been ejected from the die cavity.

Discharge Chute.

Directs completed tablets out of the press for collection.

Each type of tablet press has its own unique advantages that make it well-suited for specific applications.

The single punch press is best for projects where minimal amounts of test material are available, and in cases where the user is simply looking to confirm compressibility and nothing more. They do not allow the user to replicate key principles affecting production-sized presses, such as centrifugal force, mechanical feeder behavior and dwell time. Its biggest advantages are:

Small size

Ease of operation

Low noise levels

Compression feasibility

Rotary tablet presses are ideal for applications requiring high batch production, as their design allows for significant output and precise control. Advantages include:

Ability to independently control weight, thickness and hardness of tablets, if equipped with available peripheral devices

The capability to produce up to 1,000,000+ tablets per hour, depending on press size and tooling configurations.

Ability to precisely control and manage the filling of die cavities, via an induced feeder

Interface capability with in-house network systems, for remote monitoring and data archiving

Greater cost efficiency than single punch presses

Capacity Calculation

The following elements are required to calculate the capacity of the compression machine.

a) Number of punches

b) Revolution per minute(rpm)

c) Number of feed system(single hopper or double hopper)

a) Number Of Punches

Number of punches in a compression machine is fixed mean different compression machines have different number of punches depending on the number of holes in the die table and punch holders in the turret.

Some general types of compression machine on basis of the number of punches are

23  Station Compression machine

33 Station Compression machine

35 Station Compression machine

45 Station Compression machine

b) Revolutions per minute(rpm)

Revolutions per minute is the speed of the compression machine in one minute.

Revolution per minute is the measure of rounds completed by a turret of a compression machine in one minute.

Revolutions per minute can be counted manually at the slow speed of the compression machine.

Fast running machine's rpm is calculated by the Tachometer.

c) Number of feed systems

Single hopper machines are single feeding machines.

Double hopper machines are double feeding system machines.

How to calculate the capacity

Following formula is used to calculate the compression machine capacity.

Machine Capacity=Number of punches×rpm×Number of feed system

Example 1:

Compression machine with 35 punches and running at 30 rpm. The machine has a double feed system and capacity is calculated by putting values in the formula as follow, 

Number of punches × rpm × Number of feed system

35×30×2=2100 Tablets/min

It means 2100 tablets are compressed in one minute. so for one hour multiply it by 60 and answer is as follow

2100×60=126000 tablets/hr

It means 126000 tablets are compressed in one hour.

So final formula for compression machine capacity in one hour is as follow. 

Machine Capacity = Number of Punches×rpm×Number of feed system×60

Example 2:

Compression machine with 23 punches and running at 25 rpm. The machine has a single feed system and capacity is calculated by putting values in the formula as follow, 

Number of punches × rpm × Number of feed system

23×25×1=575 Tablets/min

It means 575 tablets are compressed in one minute. so for one hour multiply it by 60 and answer is as follow

575×60=34,500 tablets/hr

It means 34,500 tablets are compressed in one hour.


So final formula for compression machine capacity in one hour is as follow. 

Machine Capacity = Number of Punches × rpm × Number of feed system×60

Post a Comment


Table of Contents