Remedial biology nirali prakashan

Scope: To learn and understand the components of living world, structure and functional

system of plant and animal kingdom.

Objectives: Upon completion of the course, the student shall be able to

 know the classification and salient features of five kingdoms of life

 understand the basic components of anatomy & physiology of plant

 know understand the basic components of anatomy & physiology animal with

special reference to human


Living world:

 Definition and characters of living organisms

 Diversity in the living world

 Binomial nomenclature

 Five kingdoms of life and basis of classification. Salient features of Monera,

Potista, Fungi, Animalia and Plantae, Virus,

Morphology of Flowering plants

 Morphology of different parts of flowering plants – Root, stem, inflorescence,

flower, leaf, fruit, seed.

 General Anatomy of Root, stem, leaf of monocotyledons & Dicotylidones.


Body fluids and circulation

 Composition of blood, blood groups, coagulation of blood

 Composition and functions of lymph

 Human circulatory system

 Structure of human heart and blood vessels

 Cardiac cycle, cardiac output and ECG

Digestion and Absorption

 Human alimentary canal and digestive glands

 Role of digestive enzymes

 Digestion, absorption and assimilation of digested food

Breathing and respiration

 Human respiratory system

 Mechanism of breathing and its regulation

 Exchange of gases, transport of gases and regulation of respiration

 Respiratory volumes


Excretory products and their elimination

 Modes of excretion

 Human excretory system- structure and function

 Urine formation

 Rennin angiotensin system

Neural control and coordination

 Definition and classification of nervous system

 Structure of a neuron

 Generation and conduction of nerve impulse

 Structure of brain and spinal cord

 Functions of cerebrum, cerebellum, hypothalamus and medulla oblongata

Chemical coordination and regulation

 Endocrine glands and their secretions

 Functions of hormones secreted by endocrine glands

Human reproduction

 Parts of female reproductive system

 Parts of male reproductive system

 Spermatogenesis and Oogenesis

 Menstrual cycle


Plants and mineral nutrition:

 Essential mineral, macro and micronutrients

 Nitrogen metabolism, Nitrogen cycle, biological nitrogen fixation


 Autotrophic nutrition, photosynthesis, Photosynthetic pigments, Factors affecting



Plant respiration: Respiration, glycolysis, fermentation (anaerobic).

Plant growth and development

 Phases and rate of plant growth, Condition of growth,Introduction to plant growth


Cell - The unit of life

 Structure and functions of cell and cell organelles.Cell division


 Definition, types of tissues, location and functions.

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